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  1. In 2012, an 84-year-old Chinese man presented with progressive, chronic left atraumatic knee pain and swelling. His medical history was notable for pulmonary tuberculosis treated in China in 1951 and rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed in 2006. His joint pain progressed despite use of disease modifying drugs and steroid injections. Antitumor necrosis factor inhibitors were not used because of concerns of tuberculosis reactivation. Clinical examination showed he had antalgic gait, knee effusion, stiffness, and joint-line tenderness. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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  2. Most pets in the U.S. today are overweight or obese. According to the most recent information from the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP), over half of U.S. dogs are overweight, and almost 60 percent of cats are as well. Obesity is its own disease, and it's also the root cause of several other painful, debilitating diseases including hip dysplasia, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory problems, kidney disease, and a significant reduction in both quantity and quality of life. While most dog guardians can think of several ways to help their pet get physically fit, people who share their lives with a corpulent cat often have no idea how to get beefy Bella to follow a workout routine. Here are my favorite recommendations for getting the overweight feline in your life up an...
  3. Antisclerostin monoclonal antibodies have shown their ability to increase bone density in phase II and III trials of men and women with osteoporosis but could potentially have the opposite effect in... (Source: Clinical Endocrinology News)
  4. Updated Date: Mar 21, 2016 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates)
  5. Purpose: Self-reported pain questions are the established way to determine osteoarthritis (OA) related pain in population cohort studies, of which NHANES-type (National Health Nutrition Examination Survey) questions and WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index) are the most common. However, there is limited understanding of how wording variations relating to the duration of pain (i.e. most days in the month) and period of pain recall (i.e. in the last year) affect the prevalence and comparability of these questions. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  6. Resolving inflammatory exudates produce chemical mediators that regulate inflammation, stimulate resolution and tissue regeneration. These mediators include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families and are collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Identification of novel signals in these processes and their pathways is of interest. These mediators actively regulate leukocyte responses counter-regulating the production pro-inflammatory signals, promoting their differentiation to a protective phenotype and orchestrating their trafficking in and out of injured tissues. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)

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  7. Purpose: Quadriceps and hamstring muscle co-contraction prior to and following heel-strike in gait is a commonly observed strategy of the injured, arthritic and post-surgical knee joint. Previous work applied Wavelet Analysis (WA) and Support Vector Machine tools to identify temporal alterations in multi-muscle activity patterns for female patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for end-stage osteoarthritis. Distinct alterations of high-intensity activation peaks of vastus medialis (VM) and biceps femoris (BF) were observed indicating a delayed activation onset and shift toward a common muscle activation post heel-strike in TKA subjects. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  8. Purpose: Connexins, the major proteins of gap junctions, are expressed in various cell types and are important in the key process of intercellular communication. Connexins 26, 32 and 43 are expressed in synoviocytes, and connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most highly expressed connexin in normal human synovial membranes. Cx43 regulates immunological response in several tissues such as kidneys and lungs. Although, the role of Cx43 in synovium of arthritis is almost unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the expression level of Cx43 gene in synovial tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with osteoarthritis. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  9. Purpose: Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a frequent and clinically important complication of joint injury. While PTA can occur rapidly after moderate to severe articular fractures, not every patient will develop this condition. There are currently no effective screening methods to determine who is at risk for developing PTA. The overall objective of this study was to identify biomarkers following articular fracture that may be associated with joint injury and predictive of the development of PTA. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  10. Purpose: YKL-40 is associated with inflammation and tissue injury in diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It has been shown to be produced by macrophages and some tissue cells as well as by cancer cells. Increased circulating YKL-40 levels have been reported in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, the role of YKL-40 in OA joints remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the levels of YKL-40 in simultaneously collected plasma, synovial fluid (SF) and cartilage samples from OA patients undergoing knee replacement surgery, and investigated its associations with inflammatory factors and matrix degrading MMP enzymes in an attempt to understand the role of YKL-40 in OA. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  11. Purpose: Collagen isomerization is a non-enzymatical process associated with tissue aging, and changes in levels of isomerized peptide fragments may reflect unique changes during pathological conditions. The D-G sequence in the collagen type II neoepitope C2M is likely to undergo beta-isomerization over time, and may be altered in tissue turnover in diseases affecting the joint. We therefore hypothesize that pathological conditions, such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in which the anabolic/catabolic balance of cartilage is challenged, may result in altered levels between isomerized and normal collagen type II. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)

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  12. Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) fits the description provided by Machiavelli over 500 years ago of a malady, in the beginning “is easy to cure but difficult to detect, but in the course of time, not having been either detected or treated in the beginning, becomes easy to detect but difficult to cure”. A precedent for improved outcomes with early identification and early treatment now exists for Rheumatoid Arthritis. We hypothesized that this paradigm should inform the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of OA in order to prevent the disease prior to the onset of irreversible joint tissue pathology. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  13. Purpose: Periostin is a secreted extracellular matrix protein which belongs to the fasciclin family. It plays a role in embryogenesis and tissue repair and shows increased expression in tissues subject to mechanical stress and in some neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Periostin has been identified in synovium and cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA) and in inflammatory arthritis synovium. To determine the role of periostin in inflammatory OA and non-inflammatory OA we characterized periostin expression in the synovium and synovial fluid in cases of non-inflammatory and non-inflammatory OA and in normal and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  14. In this study, we sought evidence for a possible role of these cells in OA by quantifying and characterizing mast cells in the osteoarthritic (OA) synovium using immunofluorescence and investigating their association with clinical parameters in comparison with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) samples. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  15. Purpose: Anti-inflammatory treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) as well as glucocorticoids (GC) is supposed to negatively influence bone metabolism and healing. However, studies addressing the number of afflicted patients and indicating the negative impact of comorbidities or even standard medications such as the impact of NSAID as well as GC on the bone fracture healing process, especially the initial phase, are scarce. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  16. Purpose: Obesity is one of the most modifiable risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), and dietary induced weight loss combined with exercise is potentially the best non-pharmacologic treatment for OA symptoms. In an exploratory analysis of the previously published Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, we test the hypothesis that intensive dietary induced weight loss, either with or without exercise, will significantly change the gait of older, overweight and obese adults with knee OA compared to exercise alone. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)

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  17. Purpose: Clinical management of chronic joint pain evoked by osteoarthritis is a real challenge due to our limited understanding of the cellular mechanisms that initiate and develop chronic pain. It has been increasingly recognized that glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes in the central nervous system play an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Notably, astrocytes make very close contacts with synapses and astrocyte reaction after nerve injury, arthritis, and tumor growth is more persistent than microglial reaction and displays a better correlation with chronic pain behaviors. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  18. Purpose: Exercise and weight loss have been shown to reduce pain and improve function in overweight and obese adults with knee OA. Results from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, an 18-month trial comparing dietary-weight loss (Diet,D) and Diet plus Exercise (D+E) to an Exercise only control group (E), also found a significant reduction in knee compressive forces in the D group and in plasma levels of IL-6 in the D and D+E groups compared to the E control group. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of these interventions on biomarkers reflecting interstitial matrix turnover and tissue inflammation as a proxy for effects on joint structure and determine the association of biomarkers with selected clinical outcome measures including radiograp...
  19. Purpose: Progranulin (PGRN) is a multifunctional growth factor which is composed of seven-and-a-half repeats of a cysteine-rich motif in the order P-G-F-B-A-C-D-E. PGRN directly binds to TNF-α receptors (TNFR), and inhibits TNF-α activity. Atsttrin(A50), an engineered protein composed of three PGRN fragments (1/2F-1/2A-1/2C), exhibited selective TNFR binding, and potently prevented inflammation in multiple arthritis mouse models (Tang, et al, Science, 2011). In addition, recent studies demonstrated that local injection of PGRN significantly prevented OA progression (Zhao et al, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 2015). (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)
  20. Purpose: The Arthritis Foundation initiated this demonstration project with the long-term goal of implementing an innovative big data approach to recruitment for osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials. A major challenge in OA clinical trials is correctly classifying the OA phenotype for each patient. This abstract describes the first step in this project: to identify and validate a large cohort of OA patients. The data were obtained from the national clinical repository from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)

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